Download and read online Arctic Climate Change in PDF and EPUB The Arctic is now experiencing some of the most rapid and severe climate change on earth. Over the next 100 years, climate change is expected to accelerate, contributing to major physical, ecological, social, and economic changes, many of which have already begun. Changes in arctic climate will also affect the rest of the world through increased global warming and rising sea levels. The volume addresses the following major topics: - Research results in observing aspects of the Arctic climate system and its processes across a range of time and space scales - Representation of cryospheric, atmospheric, and oceanic processes in models, including simulation of their interaction with coupled models - Our understanding of the role of the Arctic in the global climate system, its response to large-scale climate variations, and the processes involved.
Download and read online Climate Extremes Patterns and Mechanisms in PDF and EPUB Although we are seeing more weather and climate extremes, individual extreme events are very diverse and generalization of trends is difficult. For example, mid-latitude and subtropical climate extremes such as heat waves, hurricanes and droughts have increased, and could have been caused by processes including arctic amplification, jet stream meandering, and tropical expansion. This volume documents various climate extreme events and associated changes that have been analyzed through diagnostics, modeling, and statistical approaches. The identification of patterns and mechanisms can aid the prediction of future extreme events. Volume highlights include: Compilation of processes and mechanisms unique to individual weather and climate extreme events Discussion of climate model performance in terms of simulating high-impact weather and climate extremes Summary of various existing theories, including controversial ones, on how climate extremes will continue to become stronger and more frequent Climate Extremes: Patterns and Mechanisms is a valuable resource for scientists and graduate students in the fields of geophysics, climate physics, natural hazards, and environmental science.
Download and read online Sea Ice in PDF and EPUB Over the past 20 years the study of the frozen Arctic and Southern Oceans and sub-arctic seas has progressed at a remarkable pace. This third edition of Sea Ice gives insight into the very latest understanding of the how sea ice is formed, how we measure (and model) its extent, the biology that lives within and associated with sea ice and the effect of climate change on its distribution. How sea ice influences the oceanography of underlying waters and the influences that sea ice has on humans living in Arctic regions are also discussed. Featuring twelve new chapters, this edition follows two previous editions (2001 and 2010), and the need for this latest update exhibits just how rapidly the science of sea ice is developing. The 27 chapters are written by a team of more than 50 of the worlds’ leading experts in their fields. These combine to make the book the most comprehensive introduction to the physics, chemistry, biology and geology of sea ice that there is. This third edition of Sea Ice will be a key resource for all policy makers, researchers and students who work with the frozen oceans and seas.
Download and read online New Ecoinformatics Tools in Environmental Science in PDF and EPUB This book provides new insights on the study of global environmental changes using the ecoinformatics tools and the adaptive-evolutionary technology of geoinformation monitoring. The main advantage of this book is that it gathers and presents extensive interdisciplinary expertise in the parameterization of global biogeochemical cycles and other environmental processes in the context of globalization and sustainable development. In this regard, the crucial global problems concerning the dynamics of the nature-society system are considered and the key problems of ensuring the system’s sustainable development are studied. A new approach to the numerical modeling of the nature-society system is proposed and results are provided on modeling the dynamics of the system’s characteristics with regard to scenarios of anthropogenic impacts on biogeochemical cycles, land ecosystems and oceans. The main purpose of this book is to develop a universal guide to information-modeling technologies for assessing the function of environmental subsystems under various climatic and anthropogenic conditions.
Download and read online Climate Change 2013 The Physical Science Basis in PDF and EPUB This latest Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard scientific reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students and researchers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology and atmospheric chemistry. It provides invaluable material for decision makers and stakeholders: international, national, local; and in all branches: government, businesses, and NGOs. This volume provides: • An authoritative and unbiased overview of the physical science basis of climate change • A more extensive assessment of changes observed throughout the climate system than ever before • New dedicated chapters on sea-level change, biogeochemical cycles, clouds and aerosols, and regional climate phenomena • A more extensive coverage of model projections, both near-term and long-term climate projections • A detailed assessment of climate change observations, modelling, and attribution for every continent • A new comprehensive atlas of global and regional climate projections for 35 regions of the world
Download and read online Principles of Tidal Sedimentology in PDF and EPUB This book presents a comprehensive, contemporary review of tidal environments and deposits. Individual chapters, each written by world-class experts, cover the full spectrum of coastal, shallow-marine and even deep-marine settings where tidal action influences or controls sediment movement and deposition. Both siliciclastic and carbonate deposits are covered. Various chapters examine the dynamics of sediment transport by tides, and the morphodynamics of tidal systems. Several chapters explore the occurrence of tidal deposits in the stratigraphic context of entire sedimentary basins. This book is essential reading for both coastal geologists and managers, and geologists interested in extracting hydrocarbons from complex tidal successions.
Download and read online Physics and Modelling of Wind Erosion in PDF and EPUB This book provides a comprehensive summary of the recent developments in wind-erosion research and a clear outline of its future directions. The physics of wind-erosion, from particle entrainment to transport and deposition, is described with rigor from the viewpoints of fluid dynamics and soil physics. The techniques for quantitative wind-erosion prediction through computational modelling constitutes a unique feature of this book in contrast to others published in the same field. For the first time, wind-erosion has been considered systematically as a multidisciplinary subject. The author has advocated the development of integrated wind-erosion modelling systems which couple dynamic models for the atmosphere and land surface with spatially distributed data for land-surface conditions. The successful applications of such a system have demonstrated its usefulness in wind-erosion assessment and prediction on regional to continental scales. This book offers a valuable reference point for researchers and postgraduate students engaged in wind-erosion related studies, ranging from global climate change to atmospheric aerosols, dust storms, air quality, and land conservation.
Download and read online The Arctic Climate System in PDF and EPUB The Arctic can be viewed as an integrated system, characterised by intimate couplings between its atmosphere, ocean and land, linked in turn to the larger global system. This comprehensive, up-to-date assessment begins with an outline of early Arctic exploration and the growth of modern research. Using an integrated systems approach, subsequent chapters examine the atmospheric heat budget and circulation, the surface energy budget, the hydrologic cycle and interactions between the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice cover. Reviews of recent directions in numerical modelling and the characteristics of past Arctic climates set the stage for detailed discussion of recent climate variability and trends, and projected future states. Throughout, satellite remote sensing data and results from recent major field programs are used to illustrate key processes. The Arctic Climate System provides a comprehensive and accessible overview of the subject for researchers and advanced students in a wide range of disciplines.
Download and read online Introduction to Climate Modelling in PDF and EPUB A three-tier approach is presented: (i) fundamental dynamical concepts of climate processes, (ii) their mathematical formulation based on balance equations, and (iii) the necessary numerical techniques to solve these equations. This book showcases the global energy balance of the climate system and feedback processes that determine the climate sensitivity, initial-boundary value problems, energy transport in the climate system, large-scale ocean circulation and abrupt climate change.
Download and read online Building safer cities in PDF and EPUB Vulnerability to disaster impacts is an increasingly important aspect of urban development, and a number of ongoing trends have the potential to cause even more severe and broader disaster impacts, including increased environmental degradation, the impacts of climate change, population growth in cities, and the effects of globalisation. The effects of disasters are particularly severe in developing countries, causing problems for economic and social development, inflicting massive casualties, and leading to the diversion of funds from development to emergency relief and recovery. This publication contains a number of background papers prepared for a World Bank conference on disaster risk management, held in Washington in December 2002. The papers discuss a number of case studies and papers which consider disaster risk reduction strategies designed to enable local communities and authorities in developing countries to be better prepared to protect their lives, homes, livelihoods and assets in an emergency situation.
Download and read online Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online An introduction to the world s oceans in PDF and EPUB .In An Introduction to the World's Oceans, Seventh Edition, Keith Sverdrup, Alyn Duxbury, and Alison Duxbury have blended the most comtemporary information and research with basic principles to bring you and your students an unmatched, comprehensive introduction to oceanography. You will find a significantly revised Seventh Edition that addresses all the latest findings in oceanography.What's special about these authors?An Introduction to the World's Oceans, Seventh Edition,contains balanced and comprehensive coverage that comes from each author having strength in different areas of oceanography. Oceanography is an eclectic science that examines physical, chemical, and biological properties of the world's oceans. Alison Duxbury has a background in marine biology, Alyn Duxbury has a background in physical oceanography, and Keith Sverdrup has a background in marine geology, geophysics, and how oceanography relates to other areas of science. The result? A well-balanced, comprehensive introduction to oceanography.McGraw-Hill has exclusive videos from Scripps Institution of Oceanography: These video clips will be brief (one- to two-minute clips) and available on either videotape or on the Digital Content Manager CD-ROM. There will be a total of about 2 hours and 12 minutes worth of these short clips. Clips will be available for each chapter of the text and no other company can offer these videos.