Download and read online Oil Gas Databook for Developing Countries in PDF and EPUB In order to alleviate their problems many less developed countries (LDCs) are endeavoring to develop to the full their energy resources and in particular their hydrocarbon resources. However, the development of these resources is hindered by many factors, among which are the following: badly established estimates of indigenous resources; under-exploration; lack of competent Government institutions to monitor the hydrocarbon sector; lack of local markets to exploit non-oil hydrocarbon finds; refineries which are outdated, producing the wrong product mix and where economies of scale make upgrading difficult. The purpose of this work is to examine the hydrocarbon sector in the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of countries. An examination of such a diverse group of nations on a global scale is difficult since the group includes relatively rich countries such as Trinidad and Tobago with a GNP per capita of $4000, to the sub-Saharan countries such as Mali with a GNP per capita of $120. No easy solutions will be presented to improve the present energy situation in these countries but the reasons for the lack of hydrocarbon development will be examined. The work of the World Bank and similar international financial institutions will be assessed and a potted review of the hydrocarbon sector in each country will be presented.
Download and read online Unholy Trinity in PDF and EPUB Who really runs the global economy? Who benefits most from it? The answer is a triad of 'governance institutions' - The IMF, the World Bank and the WTO. Globalization massively increased the power of these institutions and they drastically affected the livelihoods of peoples across the world. Yet they operate undemocratically and aggressively promote a particular kind of neoliberal capitalism. Under the 'Washington Consensus' they proposed, poverty was to be ended by increasing inequality. This new edition of Unholy Trinity, completely updated and revised, argues that neoliberal global capitalism has now entered a period of crisis so severe that governance will become impossible. Huge incomes for a small number of super-rich people produced an unstable global economy, rife with speculation and structurally prone to crises. The IMF is in disgrace, the WTO can hardly meet anymore and the World Bank survives as a global philanthropist. Is this the end for the Unholy Trinity?
Download and read online The New Presence of China in Africa in PDF and EPUB "This book describes China's growing range of activities in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western development aid model has failed, is looking for new forms of aid and development in Africa. China's economic success can partly be ascribed to the huge availability of cheap labour, which is primarily employed in export-oriented industries. China is looking for the required raw materials in Africa, and for new marketplaces. Investments are being made on a large scale in Africa by Chinese state-controlled firms and private companies, particularly in the oil-producing countries (Angola, Nigeria and Sudan) and countries rich in minerals (Zambia). Third, the trade policy China is conducting is analysed in China and compared with that of Europe and the United States. In case studies the specific situation in several African countries is examined. In Zambia the mining industry, construction and agriculture are described. One case study of Sudan deals with the political presence of China in Sudan and the extent to which Chinese arms suppliers contributed to the current crisis in Darfur. The possibility of Chinese diplomacy offering a solution in that conflict is discussed. The conclusion considers whether social responsibility can be expected of the Chinese government and companies and if this is desirable, and to what extent the Chinese model in Africa can act as an example - or not - for the West"--Publisher's description.
Download and read online Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis in PDF and EPUB This book offers comprehensive coverage of the design, analysis, and operational aspects of biomass gasification, the key technology enabling the production of biofuels from all viable sources--some examples being sugar cane and switchgrass. This versatile resource not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of biomass gasifiers. The author provides many worked out design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. After fossil fuels, biomass is the most widely used fuel in the world. Biomass resources show a considerable potential in the long term if residues are properly handled and dedicated energy crops are grown. Includes step-by-step design procedures and case studies for Biomass Gasification Provides worked process flow diagrams for gasifier design. Covers integration with other technologies (e.g. gas turbine, engine, fuel cells)
Download and read online Planet of Slums in PDF and EPUB An exploration of modern-world urbanization cites a concerning rise in slum life that currently accounts for nearly one-fifth of the world's population, arguing that urban populations are disconnected and exempt from the formal world economy and may represent an explosive convergence of ethnic, religious, and political unrest.
Download and read online Ecology and Equity in PDF and EPUB Environmental destruction is seen a matter of worldwide concern but as a Third World problem. Ecology and Equity explores the most ecologically complex country in the world. India's peoples range from technocrats to hunter-gathers and its environments from dense forest to wasteland. The bookanalyses the use and abuse of nature on the sub-continent to reveal the interconnections of social and environmental conflict on the global scale. The authors argue that the root of this conflict is competition within different social groups and between different economic interests for natural resources. Radical both in its critique of the causes of crisis in India and in its proposals for ecological reform, Ecology and Equity is essential reading for all concerned for the Third World's in the world.
Download and read online Architect s Pocket Book in PDF and EPUB This handy pocket book brings together a wealth of useful information that architects need on a daily basis – on-site or in the studio. It provides clear guidance and invaluable detail on a wide range of issues, from planning policy through environmental design to complying with Building Regulations, from structural and services matters to materials characteristics and detailing. This fifth edition includes the updating of regulations, standards and sources across a wide range of topics. Compact and easy to use, the Architect’s Pocket Book has sold well over 90,000 copies to the nation’s architects, architecture students, designers and construction professionals who do not have an architectural background but need to understand the basics, fast. This is the famous little blue book that you can’t afford to be without.
Download and read online Technology for Developing Marginal Offshore Oilfields in PDF and EPUB The idea for this review of the technology for developing marginal offshore oilfieldsarose out of a report which we were commissioned to undertake for the Irish Departmentof Energy in October 1984. The Department were looking for information on thedifferent options for developing small oil accumulations in the exposed Irish offshorearea, what systems were currently available, what new developments were likely in thenext decade and the approximate cost of developing various sizes of reservoir using thesesystems.While compiling the report we discovered that, while all the literature and industryspokesmen agreed on the importance of marginal field technology, there was nopublication which addressed the topic in any comprehensive fashion, with the possibleexception of studies costing several thousands of dollars or confidential oil company inhousereports. This review aims to cover this very broad topic in a way which isintelligible to a general technical reader. It is not possible to cover detailed design aspectsof the various systems described here in a book of this size. References and abibliography covering the topics discussed in each chapter are provided for thoseinterested in pursuing the various subjects in more detail.
Download and read online Wilson in PDF and EPUB As A. Scott Berg says: 'You can't understand the United States in the twentieth century without understanding Woodrow Wilson' From Pulitzer Prize-winning author, A. Scott Berg, comes the definitive and revelatory biography of one of the greatest American figures of our time. One hundred years after his inauguration, Woodrow Wilson still stands as one of the most influential figures of the twentieth century, and one of the most enigmatic. And now, after more than a decade of research and writing, Pulitzer Prize-winning author A. Scott Berg has completed Wilson- the most personal and penetrating biography ever written about the 28th President. In addition to the hundreds of thousands of documents in the Wilson Archives, Berg was the first biographer to gain access to two recently-discovered caches of papers belonging to those close to Wilson. From this material, Berg was able to add countless details - even several unknown events - that fill in missing pieces of Wilson's character and cast new light on his entire life. From the scholar-President who ushered the country through its first great world war to the man of intense passion and turbulence, from the idealist determined to make the world 'safe for democracy', to the stroke-crippled leader whose incapacity, and the subterfuges around it, were among the century's greatest secrets, the result is an intimate portrait written with a particularly contemporary point of view - a book at once magisterial and deeply emotional about the whole of Wilson's life, accomplishments and failings. This is not just Wilson the icon - but Wilson the man. Praise for Lindbergh: 'Berg turns that historic flight into a cogent and thoroughly gripping account that conveys all the magic, danger and courage of the young pilot's achievement' Michiko Kakutani, New York Times 'An extraordinary achievement . . . the definitive account of a dramatic and disturbing American story' Los Angeles Times Book Review 'An astonishing biography of a man who personified the future tense, no sentence is overwritten, no passage overwrought' Boston Sunday Globe
Download and read online Competing Against Time in PDF and EPUB Today, time is the cutting edge. In fact, as a strategic weapon, contend George Stalk, Jr., and Thomas M. Hout, time is the equivalent of money, productivity, quality, even innovation. In this path-breaking book based upon ten years of research, the authors argue that the ways leading companies manage time—in production, in new product development, and in sales and distribution—represent the most powerful new sources of competitive advantage. With many detailed examples from companies that have put time-based strategies in place, such as Federal Express, Ford, Milliken, Honda, Deere, Toyota, Sun Microsystems, Wal-Mart, Citicorp, Harley-Davidson, and Mitsubishi, the authors describe exactly how reducing elapsed time can make the critical difference between success and failure. Give customers what they want when they want it, or the competition will. Time-based companies are offering greater varieties of products and services, at lower costs, and with quicker delivery times than their more pedestrian competitors. Moreover, the authors show that by refocusing their organizations on responsiveness, companies are discovering that long-held assumptions about the behavior of costs and customers are not true: Costs do not increase when lead times are reduced; they decline. Costs do not increase with greater investment in quality; they decrease. Costs do not go up when product variety is increased and response time is decreased; they go down. And contrary to a commonly held belief that customer demand would be only marginally improved by expanded product choice and better responsiveness, the authors show that the actual results have been an explosion in the demand for the product or service of a time-sensitive competitor, in most cases catapulting it into the most profitable segments of its markets. With persuasive evidence, Stalk and Hout document that time consumption, like cost, is quantifiable and therefore manageable. Today's new-generation companies recognize time as the fourth dimension of competitiveness and, as a result, operate with flexible manufacturing and rapid-response systems, and place extraordinary emphasis on R&D and innovation. Factories are close to the customers they serve. Organizations are structured to produce fast responses rather than low costs and control. Companies concentrate on reducing if not eliminating delays and using their response advantage to attract the most profitable customers. Stalk and Hout conclude that virtually all businesses can use time as a competitive weapon. In industry after industry, they illustrate the processes involved in becoming a time-based competitor and the ways managers can open and sustain a significant advantage over the competition.
Download and read online Oil and Islam in PDF and EPUB During the 1970s and early 1980s, the Middle East and North Africa were perceived as being exceptionally successful, but now the region is viewed as a resounding economic and social failure. Islam is not only a religion, but also a political and social project. A major pretext of this work is to demonstrate how the tensions within Islamic movements feed directly into the economic, social, political, historical and religious arena of the region, and vice versa. An introductory chapter sets the context of the book. The core chapters of the book comprise an in-depth examination of the varied forms of oil revenue abuse. For examples, the past mismanagement of the tremendous wealth provided by oil. Following Islamic beliefs, revenue from oil should not finance wasteful consumption, but used instead for public welfare. Abstaining from interest calculations, there should be a case for keeping more oil in the ground. Indeed, oil has also stifled industrial development, and with declining oil revenues, the conflict between civilian and military priorities intensifies. While western interests have promoted arms spending, high population-growth expenditure reinforces the reality of the count-down to the post-oil era upon the Middle Eastern and North African oil exporters. So far the governments seem unwilling or unable to adapt and react. Furthermore, in the past oil has been used as a substitute for democracy. While the large oil revenues of the 1970s and early 1980s strengthened the position of autocratic rulers and weakened the private sector,repressive regimes have made Islam a source of criticism and opposition for the Western world. Following on from this, the book then looks forward to the problem of uniting the divergent interests in the spheres of oil and Islam into a cohesive whole. The book proposes that ideally Islamic governments would synchronise the depletion of oil reserves with investment in new productive assets. Islamic governments could also find ways to combine private, domestic and foreign interests in the oil industry. The main readership for this book will be policy-makers and professionals involved in development issues for Middle Eastern and North African affairs, and those with an interest in oil politics and Islamic studies.
Download and read online On Care for Our Common Home in PDF and EPUB Addressed not only to Catholics but to"every person living on this planet," Pope Francis' second encyclical is a challenging call for a "bold cultural revolution" in how we think about technological progress and economic growth. The degradation of our environment, he says, is a symptom of deeper problems: rapid change, unsustainable overconsumption, indifference to the poor, and the decay of social values. He offers a variety of solutions, including a change in lifestyles away from "extreme consumerism" and towards a greater sense of social responsibility. For Christians, an "ecological spirituality"-one that is grounded in the convictions of our faith- is not "an optional or a secondary aspect of our Christian experience." Drawing on the rich social teachings of the Church, Laudato Si is a groundbreaking document that will be discussed and studied by both believers and non-believers for years to come. Study guide included for Reflection and Discussion,