Download and read online Oil and Islam in PDF and EPUB During the 1970s and early 1980s, the Middle East and North Africa were perceived as being exceptionally successful, but now the region is viewed as a resounding economic and social failure. Islam is not only a religion, but also a political and social project. A major pretext of this work is to demonstrate how the tensions within Islamic movements feed directly into the economic, social, political, historical and religious arena of the region, and vice versa. An introductory chapter sets the context of the book. The core chapters of the book comprise an in-depth examination of the varied forms of oil revenue abuse. For examples, the past mismanagement of the tremendous wealth provided by oil. Following Islamic beliefs, revenue from oil should not finance wasteful consumption, but used instead for public welfare. Abstaining from interest calculations, there should be a case for keeping more oil in the ground. Indeed, oil has also stifled industrial development, and with declining oil revenues, the conflict between civilian and military priorities intensifies. While western interests have promoted arms spending, high population-growth expenditure reinforces the reality of the count-down to the post-oil era upon the Middle Eastern and North African oil exporters. So far the governments seem unwilling or unable to adapt and react. Furthermore, in the past oil has been used as a substitute for democracy. While the large oil revenues of the 1970s and early 1980s strengthened the position of autocratic rulers and weakened the private sector,repressive regimes have made Islam a source of criticism and opposition for the Western world. Following on from this, the book then looks forward to the problem of uniting the divergent interests in the spheres of oil and Islam into a cohesive whole. The book proposes that ideally Islamic governments would synchronise the depletion of oil reserves with investment in new productive assets. Islamic governments could also find ways to combine private, domestic and foreign interests in the oil industry. The main readership for this book will be policy-makers and professionals involved in development issues for Middle Eastern and North African affairs, and those with an interest in oil politics and Islamic studies.
Download and read online Oil Islam and Conflict in PDF and EPUB Central Asia is likely to become a new arena of international interest in the twenty-first century, not least because of its volatile cocktail of abundant oil and gas, Islamic Jehadist groups, dictatorial regimes and the political and economic rivalry of the United States, Russia, China and Iran. Some believe that it could become the ‘new Middle East’ – a battleground for access to precious resources, religious fundamentalism and democratic politics. Narcotics, ethnic tensions and impoverished states with weapons of mass destruction further add to the region’s instability. Oil, Islam and Conflictis a timely regional perspective that gathers together and analyses a range of issues including terrorism, counter-insurgency and energy security. Rob Johnson covers the Civil Wars in Afghanistan and Tajikistan, the conflicts in Chechnya and the Caucasus and terrorism across the region, particularly by the IMT (Islamic Movement of Turkestan). He also examines the policies of Central Asian governments, including their attitudes to democratic reform, human rights, energy and economic development, and how these are related to civil violence. Further consideration is given to Islamist movements such as the IRP (Islamic Renaissance Party) and Hizb ut-Tahrir, and their impact on the peoples of Central Asia, as well as the unrest in China’s Xinjiang province. This book will be of interest to policy researchers and practitioners, military personnel, oil and gas companies, students and general readers interested in this increasingly turbulent and important region.
Download and read online Oil and Islam in PDF and EPUB
Download and read online Turkey in the Middle East in PDF and EPUB At the turn of the century, modern Turkey remains torn between the secular heritage of its founder, Kemal Ataturk, and the political and social trends that challenge that legacy. Alon Liel traces the development of Turkey's current political environment, investigating the collapse of the country's economy in the 1970s, its recovery in the 1980s, its relationship with its Middle Eastern neighbors, and the dramatic political events of the 1990s.
Download and read online Islam Oil and Geopolitics in PDF and EPUB Central Asia is a test of America's ability to promote liberal change, of Russia's foreign policy agenda, and of China's readiness to translate economic power into political influence. Focusing on Islamic political issues, energy security, and geopolitical maneuvering, this title presents the events in Central Asia, and how they affect the world.
Download and read online Taliban in PDF and EPUB The American bombing of terrorist bases in Afghanistan under the protection of the Islamic fundamentalist Taliban movement has brought the Taliban into sharp focus as the most radical and extreme Islamic movement in the world today. Little is known about the Taliban because of the deep secrecy that surrounds their political movement, their leaders and their aims. The geo-strategic implications of the Taliban are already creating severe instability in Russia, Iran and the five Central Asian republics where the Taliban have become a major player in the new Great Game, as Western countries and companies compete to build oil and gas pipelines from Central Asia to Western and Asian markets. The Taliban's implementation of their extreme interpretation of Islam poses new challenges to the Muslim world and the West’s understanding of radical Islam in the post-Cold War era. ‘This is an impressive and eminently readable analysis of the Taliban movement, of its background and impact on Afghanistan, and of the wider regional and geopolitical implications of the Taliban’s advent to power. The author himself is especially well placed to provide this account, having covered Afghanistan itself for two decades and having direct access to policy-makers in Pakistan, Iran and Central Asia. This is not the first book to be written on the Taliban, or Afghanistan in the 1990s. It promises, however, to be by far the strongest. It would be hard to see how anyone could rival the range and details of this account: this bids well to be the leading book on the subject.’ - Professor Fred Halliday, London School of Economics Taliban: Islam, Oil and the New Great Game was runner-up in the prestigious annual British-Kuwait Friendship Society Prize, administered by the British Society for Middle Eastern Studies.
Download and read online The Arab Gulf States in PDF and EPUB If petroleum buys political legitimacy in the Arab Gulf states, how can we explain the rise of dissent and calls for political reform despite sustained oil revenues? The answer, according to Sean Foley, lies in political, social, and economic dynamics that have been brewing beneath the surface for more than a decadeżand that are slowly shifting the balance of political power.Though Foley does not disagree that oil revenues have been important in preserving the power of Gulf autocrats, he goes beyond popular stereotypes to identify other crucial forces that are conspiring to disrupt the status quo. Chief among these are the telecommunications revolution, which has brought news of democracy (as well as regime misdeeds) to peopleżs homes, the lack of jobs for major segments of the male population, and the increasing economic power of women and minority groups. It is these complex issues, Foley shows us, that are at the forefront as the Arab Gulf states grapple with the challenges of both modernity and money.
Download and read online Oil and Water in PDF and EPUB Listen to any news broadcast today and the message comes through loud and clear: Islam is a religion of violence and behind every Muslim there lurks a potential terrorist. Islam is a threat to values of the Christian West. They are like oil and water. Clearly, they don't mix. Oil & Water: Two Faiths One God confronts these popular perceptions head-on. With keen insight and gentle understanding, it explores the differences between Christianity and Islam, as well as the many things these two enduring faith traditions hold in common - including, first and foremost, their belief in and desire to be faithful to the one, true God; their shared roots and scripture (from the Jewish faith); and the spiritual values of peace and social justice. Written for Christians by Muslim world-religions scholar Amir Hussain, the book is divided into two parts. Part 1, provides an overview of the Islamic faith and of the lives of Muslims in North America today. Chapters focus on the place and identity of Muslims in society, as well as on the importance and role of Muhammad, the Qur'an, and basic beliefs and practices (The Five Pillars of Islam). Having provided a foundation for understanding, the book moves on, in Part 2, to explore key points for dialogue today, including issues of violence and jihad, the roles of women and men, and the mystical tradition within Islam. The final two chapters look at interfaith dialogue and the practical aspects of being good "neighbours." In all of this, the book invites the reader to a place of reconciliation, to a place where the truth and value of each of these great faith traditions can be recognized and honoured by the other. In the end, the metaphor of oil and water is an interesting one for the reality of conflict and the hope for reconciliation between Islam and Christianity today.
Download and read online Oil and Security Policies in PDF and EPUB In Oil and security: Saudi Arabia 1950-2012 Islam Y. Qasem explains how the world’s largest oil producer and exporter, Saudi Arabia, used oil resources to maximize internal and external security since the mid-twentieth century.
Download and read online Encyclopedia of Islam in PDF and EPUB Explores the terms, concepts, personalities, historical events, and institutions that helped shape the history of this religion and the way it is practiced today.
Download and read online Middle East Oil Exporters in PDF and EPUB This volume is unique and unprecedented in the way that it ties together various political and economic dimensions to draw a picture of the future Middle East scenarios. It gives us a far-reaching analysis of the reasons underlying economic conditions in the major oil-exporting countries of the Middle East. It also provides a comprehensive and positive blueprint for a social, political and economic turnaround. Hossein Askari s insider experience in most of these countries makes this valuable work a must-read for specialists and students of the area. Hossein Razavi, Director of Finance, Private Sector and Infrastructure Department, Middle East and North Africa Region, The World Bank, US Anyone who wants to grasp the economic status of this rather special, perhaps unique, part of the world will find here a knowledgeable and assiduous guide. Secondly, the book presents a strong and uncompromising argument about what these countries must do, and what the West must do, to improve the economic performance and social fabric of the MENA region, and thus better the daily lives of the inhabitants. From the foreword by Robert M. Solow, Nobel Laureate, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US Hossein Askari argues here that economic and social failure in the oil-exporting countries of the Middle East is a result of much more than simply shortcomings in economic policies. He analyzes religion, corruption, instability, wars and foreign interference as factors affecting the region and offers solutions that incorporate Islamic teachings, regional peace efforts, market-oriented economic policies, sound institutions and unselfish policy support from the West. Middle East Oil Exporters presents a detailed picture of the economic structure and a critical survey of the recent economic performance of the Middle East. The focus is especially on the large oil-exporting nations, although the smaller producers are represented as well. The author illustrates how oil has become a crutch to avoid reforms, destroying the work ethic of the region, fuelling corruption and poisoning the social and cultural fabric of society to keep unpopular governments in power. In addition, he provides a view of the social, economic, and political implications of Islamic doctrine. In this context he examines the institutions of governance and determines that they have performed poorly, often in blatant violation of Islamic principles. This in-depth analysis is accompanied by a comprehensive prescription for a turnaround in the Middle East. Hossein Askari s unique and insightful critique is essential reading for students and scholars of the Middle East, as well as policymakers involved in the region. Executives of financial institutions and private corporations will also want to understand the region for their energy needs and as a market for their products and services.
Download and read online Green Petroleum in PDF and EPUB Can "green petroleum" reverse global warming and bring down high gasoline prices? Written in non-technical language for the layperson, this book investigates and details how the oil and gas industry can "go green" with new processes and technologies, thus bringing the world's most important industry closer to environmental and economic sustainability.
Download and read online Collaborative Colonialism in PDF and EPUB This book is an analysis of how oil has affected governance and human, political, and economic development in the countries of the Persian Gulf and shaped these countries' relations with the rest of the world.
Download and read online Saudi Arabia Islam and Oil in PDF and EPUB Alan Philowitz takes his readers through the history of Saudi Arabia, Islam, and the crude oil industry in “Saudi Arabia, Islam, and Oil.” Topics covered include discussion regarding the dynamics of Saudi Arabia's history and oil wealth, and its application to the development of the nation as being the most important country in the Middle East and the most important member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. The position of Saudi Arabia as a nation is unique, but there are serious areas of concern that must be addressed for it to have a future that benefits its citizens, the region, and humanity. Islamic opposition to all things Western and the fundamentalism that arises when governments implement changes within nations in this region is a concern for the entire world. The overreliance today in these nations on oil exportation will have catastrophic effects for the entire world if these problems are not immediately faced.
Download and read online Hot Flat and Crowded in PDF and EPUB Thomas L. Friedman's phenomenal number-one bestseller The World is Flat has helped millions of readers see the world in a new way. In this essential new book, Friedman takes a fresh and provocative look at two of the biggest challenges we face today: the global environmental crisis and America's surprising loss of focus and national purpose since 9/11. It is a groundbreaking account of where we stand now, and he shows us how the solutions to these two big problems are linked - how we can restore the world and revive America at the same time. Friedman explains how global warming, rapidly growing populations, and the astonishing expansion of the world's middle class through globalization have produced a planet that is 'hot, flat, and crowded'. In just a few years, it will be too late to fix things - unless there is a worldwide effort to replace our wasteful, inefficient energy practices with a strategy for clean energy, energy efficiency, and conservation that Friedman calls Code Green. This is a great challenge, Friedman explains, but also a great opportunity, and one that we cannot afford to miss. He argues that this cannot happen without American commitment and leadership. In vivid, entertaining chapters, Friedman makes it clear that the green revolution we need is like no revolution the world has seen. It will be the biggest innovation project in history; it will be hard, not easy; and it will change everything, from what you put into your car to what you see on your electric bill. But the payoff will be more than just cleaner air. It will inspire us to summon all the intelligence, creativity, boldness and concern for the common good that are our greatest human resources. Hot, Flat, and Crowded is classic Thomas L. Friedman: fearless, incisive, forward-looking, and rich in surprising common sense about the challenge - and the promise - of the future.