Download and read online Pollination Biology in PDF and EPUB This book has a wider approach not strictly focused on crop production compared to other books that are strictly oriented towards bees, but has a generalist approach to pollination biology. It also highlights relationships between introduced and wild pollinators and consequences of such introductions on communities of wild pollinating insects. The chapters on biochemical basis of plant-pollination interaction, pollination energetics, climate change and pollinators and pollinators as bioindicators of ecosystem functioning provide a base for future insights into pollination biology. The role of honeybees and wild bees on crop pollination, value of bee pollination, planned honeybee pollination, non-bee pollinators, safety of pollinators, pollination in cages, pollination for hybrid seed production, the problem of diseases, genetically modified plants and bees, the role of bees in improving food security and livelihoods, capacity building and awareness for pollinators are also discussed.
Download and read online Asiatic Honeybee Apis cerana in PDF and EPUB Despite its economic usefulness, biodiversity of Asian hive bee Apis cerana is suffering precipitous decline and is threatened with extinction in its entire native habitat. Although a number of publications have appeared on honeybees in the market no attempt has been made to approach the subject in systematically and in a comprehensive manner in case of Apis cerana. There is still not enough knowledge on different facets of biological conservation, agricultural production and role in improving food security and livelihoods. An attempt has been made in this book to fill the gap by providing detailed information on different aspects of Apis cerana leading to sustainability and environmental protection. This book discusses information on varied aspects of Apis cerana biology, biogeography, reproduction, genetics, molecular phylogeny, interaction with other species, floral resources, dance language, safety from pesticides, management problems, loss of genetic diversity, behavioural defence, role in food production, livelihood security and conservation strategies for protecting biodiversity and enhancing crop productivity. The compilation of this book is unique in the sense that in the context of pollinator decline over the world, conservation of this species will be a step for sustaining food security.
Download and read online Pollination Biology Vol 1 in PDF and EPUB The book covers interplay between pest management strategies and safety of pollinators. Detailed information is provided on pests and pollinators of temperate, subtropical and tropical fruit crops. Most of the fruit crops are highly cross pollinated and depend upon insects or benefit from insect pollination for fruit set. Insect pests on the other hand cause major economic damage on fruit crops in tropics, subtropics and temperate. Evidently, pest management in fruit crops on one hand and providing safety to the pollinators on the other is a challenging task in the context of increasing horticultural productivity without upsetting the ecological balance. This book aims to integrate and develop pest control strategies in a way to minimize their impact on beneficial insect species such as natural enemies and pollinators to enhance fruit production and quality. The book covers interplay between pest management strategies and safety of pollinators. Detailed information is provided on pests and pollinators of temperate, subtropical and tropical fruit crops. Pollinators play a crucial role in flowering plant reproduction and in the production of most fruits and vegetables. Most of the fruit crops are highly cross pollinated and depend upon insects or benefit from insect pollination for fruit set. Insect pests on the other hand cause major economic damage on fruit crops in tropics, subtropics and temperate. Evidently, pest management in fruit crops on one hand and providing safety to the pollinators on the other is a challenging task in the context of increasing horticultural productivity without upsetting the ecological balance. This book aims to integrate and develop pest control strategies in a way to minimize their impact on beneficial insect species such as natural enemies and pollinators to enhance fruit production and quality. Most of the fruit crops are highly cross pollinated and depend upon insects or benefit from insect pollination for fruit set. Insect pests on the other hand cause major economic damage on fruit crops in tropics, subtropics and temperate. Evidently, pest management in fruit crops on one hand and providing safety to the pollinators on the other is a challenging task in the context of increasing horticultural productivity without upsetting the ecological balance. This book aims to integrate and develop pest control strategies in a way to minimize their impact on beneficial insect species such as natural enemies and pollinators to enhance fruit production and quality. The book covers interplay between pest management strategies and safety of pollinators.
Download and read online Pollination Services to Agriculture in PDF and EPUB It is only recently that the immense economic value of pollination to agriculture has been appreciated. At the same time, the alarming collapse in populations of bees and other pollinators has highlighted the urgency of addressing this issue. This book focuses on the specific measures and practices that the emerging science of pollination ecology is identifying to conserve and promote animal pollinators in agroecosystems. It reviews the expanding knowledge base on pollination services, providing evidence to document the status, trends and importance of pollinators to sustainable agricultural production. It provides practical and specific measures that land managers can undertake to ensure that agroecosystems are supportive and friendly to pollinators. It draws on the Global Pollination Project, supported by UNEP/GEF and implemented by FAO and seven partner countries (Brazil, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan and South Africa), which serve to provide "lessons from the field".
Download and read online Tropical Conservation in PDF and EPUB The tropics surround the Equator limited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. The tropics include all the regions on Earth where the Sun reaches a point directly overhead at least once during the solar year. The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located between the tropic circle of latitude and the 38th parallel in each hemisphere. The tropics and subtropics are home to about 75% of the global human population. Cultural, economic, and political circumstances vary enormously across this vast geography of some 170 countries and territories. The regions not only harbor the world's poorest countries but their human populations are growing disproportionally faster than in temperate zones. Some countries are developing rapidly -- Brazil, China, India, and Mexico being obvious examples, while others still remain in the poverty trap. This region contains an astonishing proportion of global biodiversity; some 90% of plant and animal species by some measures. Its contribution to human well-being is astounding. It was the birthplace for our species; and it hosts a myriad of plant and animal species which products feed us, keep us healthy, and supply us with a variety of material goods. The tropics and subtropics are also a natural laboratory where some of humanity's most important scientific discoveries have been made. Such biodiversity has enormous implications for research priorities, capacity building, and policy to address the challenges of conserving this region. "Tropical Conservation: Perspectives on Local and Global Priorities" drew the majority of its contributors from this growing pool of scientists and practitioners working in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. It introduces important conservation concepts and illustrates their application as the authors directly capture real world experiences in their home countries in preventing biodiversity loss and sustaining ecological health. Today, no part of the world can be viewed in isolation, and we further codify and integrate a range of approaches for addressing global threats to nature and environmental sustainability, including climate change and emerging diseases. Five sections structure the major themes.
Download and read online Conservation Biology for All in PDF and EPUB Conservation Biology for All provides cutting-edge but basic conservation science to a global readership. A series of authoritative chapters have been written by the top names in conservation biology with the principal aim of disseminating cutting-edge conservation knowledge as widely as possible. Important topics such as balancing conversion and human needs, climate change, conservation planning, designing and analyzing conservation research, ecosystem services, endangered species management, extinctions, fire, habitat loss, and invasive species are covered. Numerous textboxes describing additional relevant material or case studies are also included. The global biodiversity crisis is now unstoppable; what can be saved in the developing world will require an educated constituency in both the developing and developed world. Habitat loss is particularly acute in developing countries, which is of special concern because it tends to be these locations where the greatest species diversity and richest centres of endemism are to be found. Sadly, developing world conservation scientists have found it difficult to access an authoritative textbook, which is particularly ironic since it is these countries where the potential benefits of knowledge application are greatest. There is now an urgent need to educate the next generation of scientists in developing countries, so that they are in a better position to protect their natural resources.
Download and read online Bee Pollination in Agricultural Ecosystems in PDF and EPUB For many agricultural crops, bees play a vital role as pollinators, and this book discusses the interplay among bees, agriculture, and the environment. Although honey bees are well recognized as pollinators, managed bumble bees and solitary bees are also critical for the successful pollination of certain crops, while wild bees provide a free service. As bees liberally pass pollen from one plant to the next, they also impact the broader ecosystem, and not always to the benefit of humankind. Bees can enhance the unintentional spread of genes from genetically engineered plants, and may increase the spread of invasive weeds. Conversely, genetically engineered plants can impact pollinators, and invasive weeds can supply new sources of food for these insects. Bees' flower-visiting activities also can be exploited to help spread biological control agents that control crop pests, and they are important for native plant reproduction. Managing bees for pollination is complex and the factors that must be taken into consideration are treated here, including bee natural history, physiology, pathology, and behavior. Furthermore, transporting bees from native ranges to new areas for pollination services can be controversial, and needs to be done only after assuring that it will not disrupt various ecosystems. Even though bees are small, unobtrusive creatures, they play large roles in the ecosystem. The connection between bees and humankind also is symbolic of a broader interconnection between humans and the natural world.
Download and read online Food Webs MPB 50 in PDF and EPUB "Human impacts are dramatically altering our natural ecosystems. The implications of these human impacts on the sustainability and functioning of these amazingly complex entities remains uncertain. As a result, food web theory has experienced a proliferation of research that seeks to address this critical area. This book synthesizes modern and classical results into a general theory. Finally, this book takes this general theoretical framework and discusses the implications of human impact for the stability and sustainability of ecological systems"--
Download and read online Land Use Intensification in PDF and EPUB Can science suggest new and improved approaches to reducing the conflict between productive land use and biodiversity conservation? There are many different viewpoints about the best way to deal with the myriad issues associated with land use intensification and this book canvasses a number of these from different parts of the tropical and temperate world. Chapters focus on whether science can suggest new and improved approaches to reducing the conflict between productive land use and biodiversity conservation.
Download and read online Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes in PDF and EPUB Annotation Forty-six scientists and practitioners from thirteen countries with decades of field experience in tropical regions explore how agroforestry practices can help promote biodiversity conservation in human-dominated landscapes, synthesise the current state of knowledge in the field, and identify areas where further research is needed.
Download and read online Pollination and Floral Ecology in PDF and EPUB his beautifully illustrated book describes how flowers use colors, shapes, and scents to advertise themselves; how they offer pollen and nectar as rewards; and how they share complex interactions with beetles, birds, bats, bees, and other creatures. The ecology of these interactions is covered in depth, including the timing and patterning of flowering, competition among flowering plants to attract certain visitors and deter others, and the many ways plants and animals can cheat each other. --from publisher description
Download and read online The Forgotten Pollinators in PDF and EPUB Consider this: Without interaction between animals and flowering plants, the seeds and fruits that make up nearly eighty percent of the human diet would not exist.In The Forgotten Pollinators, Stephen L. Buchmann, one of the world's leading authorities on bees and pollination, and Gary Paul Nabhan, award-winning writer and renowned crop ecologist, explore the vital but little-appreciated relationship between plants and the animals they depend on for reproduction -- bees, beetles, butterflies, hummingbirds, moths, bats, and countless other animals, some widely recognized and other almost unknown.Scenes from around the globe -- examining island flora and fauna on the Galapagos, counting bees in the Panamanian rain forest, witnessing an ancient honey-hunting ritual in Malaysia -- bring to life the hidden relationships between plants and animals, and demonstrate the ways in which human society affects and is affected by those relationships. Buchmann and Nabhan combine vignettes from the field with expository discussions of ecology, botany, and crop science to present a lively and fascinating account of the ecological and cultural context of plant-pollinator relationships.More than any other natural process, plant-pollinator relationships offer vivid examples of the connections between endangered species and threatened habitats. The authors explain how human-induced changes in pollinator populations -- caused by overuse of chemical pesticides, unbridled development, and conversion of natural areas into monocultural cropland-can have a ripple effect on disparate species, ultimately leading to a "cascade of linked extinctions."
Download and read online The Bees of the World in PDF and EPUB Written by the world's leading authority on bees, this reference is the first and only comprehensive, worldwide treatment of all groups of bees, and includes more than 16,000 species. Michener examines the evolution of bees from wasps, the relations of the bodies of bees to one another, the evolution of bees, and the structure of immature and adult bees, and more. 433 line drawings. 88 photos, 48 in color.
Download and read online Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems in PDF and EPUB Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, Second Edition addresses important issues by examining topics of global agriculture and food systems that are key to understanding the challenges we face. Questions it addresses include: Will we be able to produce enough food to meet the increasing dietary needs and wants of the additional two billion people expected to inhabit our planet by 2050? Will we be able to meet the need for so much more food while simultaneously reducing adverse environmental effects of today’s agriculture practices? Will we be able to produce the additional food using less land and water than we use now? These are among the most important challenges that face our planet in the coming decades. The broad themes of food systems and people, agriculture and the environment, the science of agriculture, agricultural products, and agricultural production systems are covered in more than 200 separate chapters of this work. The book provides information that serves as the foundation for discussion of the food and environment challenges of the world. An international group of highly respected authors addresses these issues from a global perspective and provides the background, references, and linkages for further exploration of each of topics of this comprehensive work. Addresses important challenges of sustainability and efficiency from a global perspective. Takes a detailed look at the important issues affecting the agricultural and food industries today. Full colour throughout.
Download and read online Encyclopedia of Biodiversity in PDF and EPUB The 7-volume Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Second Edition maintains the reputation of the highly regarded original, presenting the most current information available in this globally crucial area of research and study. It brings together the dimensions of biodiversity and examines both the services it provides and the measures to protect it. Major themes of the work include the evolution of biodiversity, systems for classifying and defining biodiversity, ecological patterns and theories of biodiversity, and an assessment of contemporary patterns and trends in biodiversity. The science of biodiversity has become the science of our future. It is an interdisciplinary field spanning areas of both physical and life sciences. Our awareness of the loss of biodiversity has brought a long overdue appreciation of the magnitude of this loss and a determination to develop the tools to protect our future. Second edition includes over 100 new articles and 226 updated articles covering this multidisciplinary field— from evolution to habits to economics, in 7 volumes The editors of this edition are all well respected, instantly recognizable academics operating at the top of their respective fields in biodiversity research; readers can be assured that they are reading material that has been meticulously checked and reviewed by experts Approximately 1,800 figures and 350 tables complement the text, and more than 3,000 glossary entries explain key terms